San Francisco Theological Seminary

 

 

TAEKWONDO

&

Spirituality

 

Training Manual

 

Masters: Sung-il Ahn & James A. Noel

   

  Technical Manual of Tae Kwon Do Training

 

- Table of Contents -

 

1. The History of Tae Kwon Do
2. The Christian Approach of Tae Kwon Do
3. The Philosophy of Tae Kwon Do
4. Instruction of Tae Kwon Do
5. The Purpose of a Technical Manuel
6. Use of Body Parts for Attack and Defense
7. Principle of Motions in Tae Kwon Do
10. Stances
11. Basic motions
12. Poomse (Forms)
13. Self-Defense
14. Combination hand techniques
15. Combination of kicks (old note)
16. Demonstration
17. Promotions & Retest & Make-up Test
18. Description of Kicks and Checking Points of Self-Improvement and Self- identifying Skills
19. Class design
20. Training Schedule
21. Personal Basic Routine Training (daily)
22. Advanced Routine Training for Competitor
23. Method of Training
24. Injury
25. Vital Areas
26. Etiquette
27. Use of the Bag
28. Competition Rules and Interpretation

 

(APPENDIXES)

Use of Body Parts

Stretches

Self-Defense

Vital Points

Use of Bag

Competition Rules and Interpretation

 

1. The History of Tae Kwon Do

 

It could be said that the primitive features of Tae Kwon Do had been formed since man had first learned to protect himself.  This form of self-defense became such an essential part of daily life; it was gradually streamlined and organized into a unique and powerfully efficient weapon.

 

In the process of developing Tae Kwon Do, a new understanding of the physical and mental potential of the human body was discovered.  Through experimentation and experience, this skill of unarmed combat became what it is today – a technically and scientifically formed martial art.

 

Before the birth of Christ, three kingdoms - Korguro, Baek-Je, and Silla - divided the peninsula now known as Korea.  In each of these kingdoms, sophisticated skills and techniques of Su Bak or Kwon Bup(later known as Taek Kyun, a predecessor of Tae Kwon Do) was a basic component of military training for soldiers.

 

Some of the earliest known features of Tae Kwon Do are found in murals in the royal tombs of Kakjeochong and Mooyongchong during the Korguro period.  These murals clearly show physical combat, fighting stances, and skills closely resembling the present state of Tae Kwon Do.  From this, we can see that Tae Kwon Do was a highly respected sport among the people at this time.

 

There is also documentary evidence of the martial art spirit in Baek-Je.  In this era, the government encouraged the sport of Tae Kwon Do.  Not only had the military train their soldiers in martial arts, archery, and horseback riding, the general populace were also warriors who excelled in marital arts.

 

The temples and shrines during the Silla Dynasty produced many stone engravings depicting a variety of Tae Kwon Do forms.  During the reign of Chin Heung, Korean culture and martial arts rose and flourished to new heights.  Silla at the time was a weak and tiny kingdom, constantly harassed and threatened by its powerful neighbors, Korguro and Baek-Je.  However, Silla did not stir and in result, became a national character of strength and integrity that lasted for 992 years.

 

At the same time, the most outstanding contribution to the development the martial arts emanated from an elite officer corps named Hwa Rang Do – A military and social organization for noble youths formed by king Chin Heung.  The Hwa Rang Do was well trained not only in the usual sports of archery, targeting, and horsemanship, but also in mental and physical discipline and many forms of hand-to-hand combat.  Through their unrelenting efforts to conquer turbulent rivers and rugged terrain, these groups of young knights grew strong and fearless.  Their merciless strife to defend their country and refinement of their souls became well known throughout the peninsula.  Their victories helped kingdoms for the first time in the Korean peninsula.

 

The Koryo dynasty (935 A.D. – 1392 A.D.) further popularized the study of unarmed combat.  It was during these periods that the martial adopted into the Yi Ear (1932 A.D. – 1910 A.D.).  However, a strong anti-military sentiment soon pervaded among the ruling classes and Taek Kyon was openly contradicted.  By the end of the Yi Dynasty, the martial arts appeared to have lost all traces of their original vigorousness and livings during of the period of Civil Enlightenment.

 

For several decades after the turn of the 20th century, the Japanese occupation of Korea forbids the practice of any form of martial arts. The arts were passed only to a small number of students in secrecy and kept alive by dedicated supporters such as Song Kuk Ki and Han Il Dong.

 

After Korea was liberated in 1945, many Do Jangs (martial art institutes) sprang forth, each announcing its presence with its own particular standard of style and method.  It was nevertheless the dawning of a new ear of the ancient art of Taek Kyon.  Its revival in various forms can only explain that it has successfully remained deeply implanted in the fabric of Korean society, to be able to flower and blossom once again to its full colors.

 

A decade later, Tae Kwon Do was selected as the new name of the national martial art.  The name resembles the old name of Tae Kyon and it perfectly describes the art (Do) of hand (Kwon) and foot (Tae). Tae Kwon Do was accepted as an Olympic event since 1996.

 

2. The Christian Approach of Tae Kwon Do

 

What does the Bible say about the developing and training the human body?

The Bible says that we are God’s temples and God’s Spirit lives in us.  If we separate the Holy Spirit and our body, are our bodies worthless?

Paul says, “For physical training is of some value…" and “I declare to you, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God...".   These passages reveal negative opinions regarding training of human body.  Is training of human body a stumbling stone for development of spirituality?  I describe Tae Kwon Do as a useful tool for developing a sound Christian spirit.  The Bible requires that we should manage our bodies carefully.  Christians have gifts from God included their bodies, and as stewards of God, we should manage our gifts very well.  In Genesis 1:28, God gave us control of his creatures and a cultural commends to multiply and increase in number.  This passage also includes the importance of a healthy human body.  Training our bodies belong in this category.  All kinds of sports can also relate to this. Keeping a healthy body is not the goal of a Christian, although the Christian body does have a relevant role in our spiritual life.  As a responsible Christian, we should avoid dangerous activities that threaten the value of our life.  As Christians, we are to judge, discern, and behavior correctly to take charge the responsibility as a steward of God. 

 

3. The Philosophy of Tae Kwon Do

 

Tae Kwon Do is a unique product of its time and the place of development, evolving in a frequently varying environment.  This art was developed and polished throughout the long history of Korea, therefore becoming like no other martial art in the world.

 

The environment and development of Tae Kwon Do was not shaped merely by physical competition, but spiritually as well as physically.  Every master, whether or not he is remembered today, has brought his own skills and perspective into what has become Tae Kwon Do.  This process has brought a spiritual evolution of the art.  The evolution continues, changing to meet modern conditions and demands.  Yet it continues to build on its ancient and revered foundation.

 

Modern Tae Kwon Do has a meaning of individual freedom and expression.  When it is practiced properly it purifies the spirit, trains the muscles and the mind.  It enables one to focus without restriction and concentrate on the natural movement of the body and the regulation of breathing patterns.  This builds character and leads to a love for humanity and a desire for peace.

 

To the unskilled, Tae Kwon Do may appear to be an aggressive form of art.  This misconception is understood, since it is a martial art.  Its techniques are designed to maim or even kill an opponent.  Blows with the hands, feet elbows – even the head-can break bones, boards, roof tiles, and stones.  Clearly, this would not seem as a peaceful art!

 

Yet it is a peaceful art, an irony expressing the theory of Ying and Yang: eternal duality, which exists within nature.  Tae Kwon Do teaches to live in harmony with nature, in oneness with the Earth and the Universe.  It helps one become acutely sensitive and aware of the aspects and forces of nature.  In Korea, students of Tae Kwon Do will go near a waterfall or a calm lake and purge their bodies and souls, emerging with a clean, clear heart.  In this way, they aspire to become comparable to water, for it possesses a tremendous life generating as well as one of destruction.  Yet it is beautiful and reassuring when you see water in a gentle stream, flowing around the rocks in its path. 

 

The simplicity of this philosophy is profound and subtle.  It develops modesty and serenity without vulgar pride or arrogance.  It builds the nobility of a character: self-restraint and courage, as well as a sense of alertness and vigilance.

 

It is possible to gain skills and techniques without building character, but when you meet an opponent who possesses a hard, pure spirit with a strong moral fiber, which gives him supreme confidence, your technique will be useless.

 

A story is told of a master swordsmith whose technique in making blades was excellent, but if the wielder's spirit was weak the weakness came out in combat.  In this case, they would start bloody fights where both they and their opponent would be killed or badly hurt.

 

One warrior, on receiving one of these swords, decided to test it before he used it.  He placed the blade in a swiftly flowing stream where the autumn leaves were floating.  Every time the blade touched a leaf, the leaf was cleanly sliced in two.

 

Another warrior tried the same test with a different blade that was made by the great swordsmith, a man of great spiritual power.  The fearful leaves avoided the blade.

 

Tae Kwon Do demands sacrifice, self-restraint, kindness, humility, patience, forgiveness, and love for one another in human relationships.  Like many religions, Tae Kwon Do teaches you to prevent and not inflict pain and suffering.  It is up to you to learn to control a hot temper and to develop a reserve that leaves you indifferent to ones that abuse others, although you can destroy them if you choose to.

 

A victory through dishonor is despised in Tae Kwon Do.  One must fight honorably or be dishonored.  The ultimate good lies not in winning a hundred battles, but overcoming a man or an army without a conflict.

 

Tae Kwon Do has been described as a state of mind.  It goes far beyond physical speed, strength, and grace.  It is a way of life.  In its simplest sense, Tae Kwon Do is doing anything perfectly, without ego, and in harmony with the Universe.  There are three goals in achieving this:

 

1.       Achieving a concentration of power

2.       Realizing one’s own true nature (this is the real meaning of enlightenment)

3.       Achieving the realization of the truth of enlightenment in everyday life.

 

These goals are achieved through meditation or positive training of the mind.  Enlightenment does not come easily.  Even the ancient Zen masters spent as many as twenty years trying to achieve it.  (Although there is a tradition that the great Zen master Shakkyo achieved it in a single hour!)

 

One of Tae Kwon Do’s most important principles is reverence for all forms of life.  The power we learn is awesome, and it carries with it a tremendous amount of responsibility, which cannot be taken lightly.  Remember, if you harm someone, you will have to answer for it-and live with what you have done.

 

Tae Kwon Do’s rule is to use as little force as necessary to subdue an assailant, defeating him with minimal damage to his body.  A human being is not a punching bag.

 

4. Instruction of Tae Kwon Do

 

1) The Meaning of Instruction

The objective of instructing Tae Kwon Do is to make students understand and learn the elements of Tae Kwon Do.  In short, the instruction Tae Kwon Do is to teach and transfer the techniques and movements correctly, which is more than just teaching, although it still implies more education purposes.  The instructor should consider the development of not only physical areas, but also mental and spiritual areas for an ideal instruction. 

 

2) The Principle of Instruction

The instruction of Tae Kwon Do does not only teach techniques physically and theoretically, but also to help one apply that knowledge in teaching others.  In order to succeed in instruction, following things should be considered by practitioner;

(a)    The Principle of Consciousness

The practitioner should aware what and why they are learning.  If they only mimic senior belts, they will not gain effective training results.  According to their reason and goal, they need to make an appropriate plan for the best outcome. Compulsive training brings out the least output.  In order for a student to participate in voluntarily training, the instructor should motivate them with an assignment and goal.

(b)    The Principle of Gradual Progress

There is little wonder when injuries occur when the person increases their practice to an overwhelming quantity.  But, if same load of practice were repeated, it also will have no or less effect.  The amount of practice should gradually increase according to the ability of the body.  You can increase the rate that you practice or acquire the skills of accuracy in your motions.  Everyone has different body characteristics, thus practice schedules must be different from each people according to his or her bodies.  All practice should be taught from, easy to hard, simple to complicated, known to unknown.  Basic motions to applied motions.

(c)    The Principle of Repetition

The developing skills cannot be accomplished without repetition.  The principle of repetition results of condition of reflex of body and enforce the body structure and organs.  The importance of this principle is the interval of proper rest and practice.

(d)    The Principle of Continuity

In order to acquire the best results, practice should be done with consistently.  Once daily practice stops, the effect will be reduced immediately.  Therefore, continual practice is a key to sustain top condition.  If it is impossible to practice everyday, practice should be done at least in the minimum amount of time or every other day.

(e)    The Principle of Individuality

Everyone's body has merits and demerits, so an instructor should train his students evenly.  Many instructors have a tendency to force students the same training program that they had found effective for themselves.  An individual training schedule is the best way to find possibilities and developing skills of an individual person as well as researching a student's body characteristics.  Disregard of individuality cannot create a good training program.  If a schedule is impossible to execute, the trainer should make several small schedules according to the instructor and his students' similar body characteristics. 

 

5. The Purpose of a Technical Manuel

 

1)      Teaching new student the principle of Tae Kwon Do

2)      Teaching students history and philosophy of Tae Kwon Do

3)      Justifying motions

4)      Improving techniques

5)      Understanding principles of motions

6)      Finding body characteristic and develop right techniques for students

7)      Developing techniques that their body is used to

8)      Teaching and training students correctly

 

6. Use of Body Parts for Attack and Defense

   

            The surface or object which power is transmitted into the opponent’s body is an attacking tool.  Any surface that intercepts or repels an attack is a blocking tool.  Every part where power is easily concentrated is considered an attacking and a blocking tool.  These tools are divided into sections of hands, arms, feet, legs, and other parts of the body.  Special care should be given in selecting the appropriate tool depending on the distance, target, and desired results.  This will require continual practice and boundless dedication.

 

7. Principle of Motions in Tae Kwon Do

 

TAE KWON DO is a scientific martial art.  One advantage of TAE KWON DO, compared to other martial arts, has a source of power that can generate quickly because power has a characteristic flowing.  Many TAE KWON DO actions are linear or straight.  Like all other sports, a person can generate power in the same manner.  In addition, TAE KWON DO's destructive power derives from using power from the waist.  Using power from the waist enables switching from general force to destructive power.  Without using the waist, attacks will only push the target.

Power normally flows straight.  Once the direction of power is bent, power is weakened.  This observation divides martial art into two styles: the hard or the soft.  In TAE KWON DO, the attacker is the subject of power and uses direction to deliver power.  This is called hard style or aggressive style.  On the other hand, in Aikido the defender attacks the attacker and takes advantage of the attacker’s power by thwarting the direction of power.  Stronger attacks will be result in a more effective counter-attack by directing the attacker’s power into a circle or curve to make weak.  Therefore, Aikido is called soft or circular style martial art.

In this manual, I will only mention external TAE KWON DO.  Since I am aiming to make this manual for first and the second-degree black belts, the source of power is limited to the waist.  A higher source of power will be mentioned in other manuals.  

Straightness is the most critical point in order to produce power from a hard style martial art.  All parts of the body should be straight.  The most powerful source in exterior of body is waist, and the center of power is located on “DAN” which is located three inches below the belly button.  The student will learn how to use the waist in class.  If the student uses the waist correctly, the back of the head, the back and the hip should be straight vertically and the shoulders should remain horizontal at the end of the motion. 

To generate power to execute TAE KWON DO skills, all motions should move horizontally.  Because the most effective power comes from the most balanced point of our bodies (the waist), we should only move horizontally, never vertically.  When the body is not moved straight, the center of body becomes unstable.  From the unstable point of the body, accuracy and power is reduced and can cause of injuries.[1] 

In order to produce powerful motions in TAE KWON DO, a synchronized finish is a crucial aspect.  Stepping, activity, focus, yelling, and waist power should end at same time.  If one holds their breath until the completion of the motion, it will result in the best effect in terms of power and accuracy.  This concept is based on horizontal movement.  If one holds their motion and executes the same time with the waist power while moving, it will be a powerful attack/block.

 

The following are important factors to collect power according to the select motions:

 

Knife hand:       Bend the thumb and the first joint of all other four fingers tightly.  A person can prevent injury and gather power in this form.

Fist:                  Make a tight fist and put the thumb on the middle finger.  Bend the wrist a little lower than usual.  One can avoid injuring the wrist and can gather power on only two knuckles this way.

Elbow:              Bend the forearm tightly inside and keep a horizontal forearm.

Inner-forearm:   Align the fist to the middle of the body.  Bend elbow so it is 45° to the body.  Bend the wrist inside so the power can flow into the forearm.

                        This is the same with the outer-forearm and the both-hand block

Front kick:         Stretch the ankle and bend the toes as far back as possible.  One can gather power on the ball of foot this way.

Side-Kick:         Bend the ankle inside and keep the toes facing down to gather power on the foot knife.  Keep the back of the head straight with the heel, then one can transfer their waist power to the foot knife for a powerful side-kick.

 

8. Stances

 

      1)

Name of Stance
Ready (Joonbi) Stance
Purpose
All motions in Tae Kwon Do begin from this stance.  This stance is the ready position for attacking and/or defending.  In addition, it is the preparation of mental and physical movements.

Focus

In this position, the eyes are focused straight, 15 degrees above eye level.  If a practitioner has a partner, the partners must focus on the opponent's eyes.  Focus greatly affects the result of the match.  A well-practiced focus can gain supremacy over the partner. 

Balance

  • The center of body is on the DAN, which is a source of power in attack and/or defense. 
  • The entire body should be straight from the top of head to feet, but whole body should be relaxed and flexible. 
  • In this position, the practitioner needs power only in the DAN.  If power is in the shoulders, the balance is not in the center of body.  Any motions executed from this unbalanced position will result in wasted energy, slower motions, and possibility of making a curved or circular motion.

Shoulder

Regular formal standing.  Relaxed, but squared. 

Hand Position

1)      Bring both fists up to the chest and press down slowly down to location of DAN. 

2)      If practitioner wants, he/she may lift up both heels and bring them down along with both fists.

There is to be distance, about a fist wide, between fists and the same between the fists and the DAN.

Foot Position

Foot planted with toes pointed forward.

Check Points

  • Is focus straight?
  • Is shoulder square?
  • Is back of head, body, and heels straight?
  • Are both feet facing forward?
  • Can you feel belt supporting DAN?  (Practitioner must feel strength gather in the DAN.)
  • Is the balance in the center of body?  (if practitioner can feel the supporting strength of the belt, then the balance must be in the center of body)

 

Etc.

When fists stop at the DAN position, practitioner should gather maximum strength in the DAN.  So, it will be ready for attack or defense for the next moves.


2)

Name of Stance
Front Stance
Purpose
Front stance is not a practical stance, but ideal stance which the best and most stable stance what human body can make.  But, from this stance, practitioner can develop most of stable motions through this stance.  This stance is like a frame of the building.  Just as solid building has stable and strong frame, without good stance, practitioner cannot develop stable, balanced motion. 

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Back of head, back of body and back of heap should be on straight.  Then the balance can be in the DAN (around three inches of belly button, which is a source of power in Tae Kwon Do), the center of body.

Shoulder

Two sides of shoulder should be face front and equal height.  In any moment, two sides of shoulder should be keeping straight, and not tilted as well.

Hand Position

Ready punch.  Two fists on waists.

Foot Position

Front foot:  toward to front with straight.

                   Shin and ground keep 90 degrees

                   Thigh and ground keep 45 degrees

Rear foot should be comfortable to stand.

                   Keep 45 degrees of angle of leg on the ground.     

                   Knee should be on straight as strong as endure

                   Someone stand on it.

Check Points

Is focus straight?

Is shoulder straight?

Is back of head, body, and heap straight?

Is body straight?

Angles of front and rear leg.

Is the balance on the center of body in walking?

Is body moving up and down in walking?

Are fists (knuckle parts), not wrists, on waists? (Fist will be face up.)

Etc.

Walking should be on horizontal walking.  Keep height on walking.  Practitioner can exercise putting a book on the top of the head.


3)

Name of Stance
Back Stance
Purpose
The back stance is a standard and practical form that can be used in competition.  Everyone has different body characteristics, so according to their bodies, practitioner may have different form in real situation, but all practical forms should be come from this standard stance.  They can modify, but the concept of the standard stance cannot be changed.  This stance was developed for competition.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

The power is in the front and the rear.  Nevertheless, the balance should be in the center of the body, the DAN.

Shoulder

Two sides of shoulder should be face sideways and be level.  In any moment, two sides of shoulder should be keeping straight, and not tilted as well. 

* Caution: Since the power is on rear leg, it is easy to make mistake that the front shoulder is higher than rear shoulder.

Hand Position

Ready punch.  Two fists on waists.

Foot Position

Front foot: Aimed straight forward.  Touch the ground lightly with the whole sole.

Rear foot: Most of the power is in the rear leg.

Ankle bent to 90 degrees.

Kneecap should be located forward of the big toe.  Otherwise, power would move to the front leg.

Width: Shoulder width between both feet.

* Caution: If the kneecap of rear leg is located behind the big toe, it will be confused with tiger stance.

                   When front and rear foot drag and stand together, both heels would touch each other.

Check Points

  • Is focus straight?
  • Are the shoulders straight and facing sideways?
  • Is back of the head, the body, and the hip straight?
  • Angles of front and rear leg.
  • Is the balance in the center of the body while walking?
  • Is the body bouncing while walking?
  • Are the fists (knuckle parts), not wrists, on waists? (The fist should face upward.)

Etc.

  • Walking should be done horizontally. 
  • Maintain an even height while walking. 
  • The power is on rear leg, but the balance should be on DAN.
  • When changing direction, the direction of chest is shifted as well.  In this time, practitioner must move feet straight and should be minimize the rotational radius while turning the chest.  Thus, while the body is turning, the balance is still moving straight.

 

4)

Name of Stance
Riding (horseback) Stance
Purpose
The riding stance is not a practical stance.  Nonetheless, this stance has perfect vertical and horizontal balance.  In order to develop inner strength and external balance, this stance is very important.  This is the best stance to gather strength in the DAN.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

The power is distributed on both legs equally and the balance should be on center of body, DAN.

Shoulder

Two sides of shoulder should be face front and equal height.  In any moment, two sides of shoulder should be keeping straight, and not tilted as well. 

Hand Position

Ready to punch.  Two fists on the waists.  The fist should be exactly on the waist.  If the fist is in front of the waistline, one can attack quickly, but with less power.  If the fist is behind the waistline, one can make a powerful, but slower, attack.

Foot Position

Aimed straight forward.

It is ideal to keep the toes pointed inside, but the toes should be parallel.

Width: The feet should be separated by a shoulder width.

The angle of the ground to the shins should be 90 degrees and the angle of the kneecap to the thigh should be 45 degrees.  Otherwise, the balance would leave the center of the body.

Caution: When the kneecaps of both legs are within the big toe, the balance is not in the middle of the body, but in the lower part of body.

Check Points

  • Is focus straight?
  • Is shoulder straight?
  • Is back of head, body, and heap straight?
  • Is the distance of stance a shoulder wide?
  • Are the knees and toes straight?  (When the knee is located within the toes, the balance of body is not in the center of the body (DAN).
  • Angles of the two legs.
  • Is the balance in the center of body (DAN)?

Etc.

This stance is good for practicing breathing.  In order to check for the right breathing the practitioner can place his/her hands on the kidney area on the back and take a deep breath in.  If one has correct breathing, he/she can feel the air on the palms.  If not, one must use chest breathing.

 

9. Basic motions

 

1)

Name of Motion
Middle Punch
Stance
Front or riding stance

Target

Solar plexus height

Movement

Hold the executing fist on the waist until the forward foot touches the ground, and at the same time twist the waist while keeping the balance at the center of body.  Execute the punch as fast as possible.  If one does not hold the fist long enough, it will become pushing instead of punching.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Angle of front knee
  • Straightness of rear leg
  • Straightness of back

 

 
2)

Name of Motion
Low Block
Stance
Front
Blocking area
Groin
Movement
Lift both hands and cross them.  Hold this position as long as possible, and then execute the block as soon as the moving foot touches the ground.  Do this as though you are attacking, and then it will become a strong block.  In fact, an aggressive block is a type of attack.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight forward

Hand position

One palm on the kneecap with a forearm bent inward in order to protect the groin.

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Angle of front knee
  • Straightness of rear leg
  • Straightness of back
  • Height of blocking hand

 

* Many students have a bad habit of opening and closing the hand while in motion.  They should always hold the fist closed in order to avoid finger injury.

Caution

The arm should move from up to down.  However, the balance should be in the middle of the body.

 

3)

Name of Motion
High Punch
Stance
Front or riding stance

Target

The upper lip

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Movement

Hold the executing fist on the waist until the foot in motion touches the ground, then, at same time, twist the waist while keeping the balance in the center of body.  Execute the punch as fast as possible.  If one does not hold the fist long enough, it will become pushing instead of punching.  * Important: If the armpit is open, one will make a circular motion.  This might be hurt the wrist, knuckles, or peel the skin off the knuckles.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight forward

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Angle of front knee
  • Straightness of the rear leg
  • Straightness of the back

Caution

  • Because Tae Kwon Do uses only two knuckles to strike target, practitioner should bend wrist little lower at the target.
  • The position of two fists should be at the middle of the body.

 

 4)

Name of Motion
High Block
Stance
Front
Blocking area
Head
Movement
Lift both hands and cross them.  Hold this position as long as possible, and then execute the block as soon as the moving foot touches the ground.  Do this as though you are attacking, and then it will become a strong block.  In fact, an aggressive block is a type of attack.  In order to cross arm then protect the face, do not make circular motions.  Never drop the hands below the belt.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight forward

Hand Position

The fist should be kept in the straight line with side of the head.  Place the fist 45 degrees up from the middle of the forehead.

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Angle of forearm of executing hand
  • Angle of front knee
  • Straightness of rear leg
  • Straightness of back
  • Height of blocking hand

 

* Many students have a bad habit of opening and closing the hand while in motion.  They should always hold the fist closed in order to avoid finger injury.

Caution

  • If the fist goes off to the side of the head, then the other side of head will be exposed.  If the fist is inside the side of the head, then same side of head will be exposed.
  • If one does not use the waist, one will make circular motion, which is not correct.  All motions should be moving straight.
  • When the balance moves from down to up and from right to left or vice versa.  It is very hard to move straight and use the power from the waist.  If one keeps both hands closed to the body, it will help to produce power from the waist.

5)

Name of Motion
Inner Forearm (Front/Back Stance)
Stance
Front or Back stance

Blocking area

Chest, rip, and face

Movement

Lift both hands and cross them.  Hold this position as long as possible, and then execute the block as soon as the moving foot touches the ground.  Stop the fists at the center of the body.  Do not lift the elbows up in order to avoid opening the armpits, which can cause power to snap instead of the consistent power from the waist. Do this as though you are attacking, and then it will become a strong block.  In fact, an aggressive block is a type of attack.

Hand position

When one opens the fist, it should be at the height of the eyes.  Keep armpits bent at 45 degrees and forearms bent at 45 degrees, as well.  It depends on the practitioner's body shape.  If one has wide shoulder, one would need wider angles than that of a person with narrower shoulders.                  

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight forward for the front stance

Completely sideways for the back stance

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of fist
  • Angles of armpit and forearm
  • Angle of front and rear knee

Caution

  • When one bends the wrist inward, and then one can gather power in forearm, this is executing part. 

 

6)

Name of Motion
Outer Forearm
Stance
Front/ Back
Blocking area
Chest, hip, and head
Movement
Lift both hands outwards. Hold this position as long as possible, and then execute the block as soon as the moving foot touches the ground.  Stop the fists at the center of the body.  Do not lift elbow up in order to avoid opening up the armpits, which can cause power to snap instead of the consistent power from the waist. Do this as though you are attacking, and then it will become a strong block.  In fact, an aggressive block is a type of attack.  Remember: For the maximum effect of the attack, the moment should be horizontal.

Focus

Straight, 15 degrees above eye level.

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight forward for the front stance

Completely sideways for the back stance

Hand Position

The fist should be kept in a straight line with the side of the head. Place the fist 45 degrees up from the middle of the forehead.

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Angle of forearm of executing hand
  • Angle of front knee
  • Straightness of rear leg
  • Straightness of back
  • Height of blocking hand

 

* Many students have a bad habit of opening and closing the hand while in motion.  They should always hold the fist closed in order to avoid finger injury.

Caution

  • If the fist goes off to the side of the head, then the other side of head will be exposed.  If the fist is inside the side of the head, then same side of head will be exposed.
  • If one does not use the waist, one will make circular motion, which is not correct.  All motions should be moving straight.
  • When the balance moves from down to up and from right to left or vice versa.  It is very hard to move straight and use the power from the waist.  If one keeps both hands closed to the body, it will help to produce power from the waist.

 

7)

Name of Motion
Both-Hand Block
Stance
Front or Back stance

Blocking area

Chest, rip, and face

Movement

Hold both hand on same side as long as possible.  Execute block as soon as the forwarding foot touches the ground with supporting one hand to the other elbow.  Stop fists at the center of the body.  Do not lift elbow up to avoid opening armpit. 

Hand position

 

 

Refer to Inner Forearm.

Focus

Balance

Shoulder

Check Points

Caution

8)

Name of Motion
Knife-Hand Low Block
Stance
Back stance

Blocking area

Below waist and upper knee cap

Movement

Lift both hand as high as ear and hold.  Execute both hands diagonally as soon as the forwarding foot touches the ground. 

Hand position

Stop one hand at the one palm distance from the kneecap and the other hand (actually inner part of wrist-ready motion) at the area of solar plexus.  The palm and kneecap should be facing together.

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Complete side standing

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hand

Caution

  • Do not make circular moves when hands move up and block.
  • If fingers are not putting together, it might be a cause of finger injury due to hitting each other.

 

9)

Name of Motion
Knife-Fist Low Block
Stance

 

 

 

                Same with Knife-Hand Low Block, but fist.

Blocking area

Movement

Hand position

Focus

Balance

Shoulder

Check Points

Caution

 

10)

Name of Motion
Knife-Hand Middle Block
Stance
Back stance

Blocking area

Chest and face

Movement

Lift both hand outward eye’s height and hold.  Execute both hands horizontally as soon as the forwarding foot touches the ground. 

Hand position

The fingertip should be eye’s height.  Keep 45-degree angle between armpit and triceps and 90 degrees forearm and triceps. The other hand (actually inner part of wrist-ready motion) at the area of solar plexus. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Complete side standing

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hand

Caution

  • Do not make circular moves when hands move up and block.
  • If fingers are not putting together, it might be a cause of finger injury due to hitting each other.
  • If you can see your palm after execution blocking motion, it is not right move.  In other word, you are not using your hand-knife for blocking area.

 

11)

Name of Motion
Knife-Fist Middle Block
Stance

 

 

 

            Same with Knife-Hand Middle block, but fist

Blocking area

Movement

Hand position

Focus

Balance

Shoulder

Check Points

Caution

 

12)

Name of Motion
Side Knife-Hand
Stance
Back stance

Attacking area

Neck

Movement

Lift and cross hands at shoulder height and hold.  Attack neck as soon as the forwarding foot touches the ground. 

Hand position

Stop one hand at the executor’s neck height and the other hand at the position of ready punch. 

Tip: If all fingers put together and bend only the first joint of finger, then one can gather more power on knife hand area to make powerful attack.

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Complete side standing

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hand
  • Finger and wrist should be on straight

Caution

  • Do not make circular moves when hands move up and block.
  • If fingers are not putting together, it might be a cause of finger injury due to hitting each other.

 

13)

Name of Motion
Back-Fist
Stance
Back stance

Attacking area

Temple

Movement

 

 

Same with Side Knife-Hand except back fist

Hand position

Focus

Balance

Shoulder

Check Points

Caution

 

14)

Name of Motion
Pressing Block
Stance
Front stance

Blocking area

Groin

Movement

Put both hands on waist and hold.  Execute both hands with pressing form and block groin area. 

Hand position

Stop both hands crossed on groin area.  Actual blocking area is not back of fist, but around one or two inches inside of wrist. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hands
  • Position of wrists

Caution

  • Because it is blocking low part of body, one should keep low front stance for effective practice. 
  • Suppose that counter part attacks with foot or stick.

 

15)

Name of Motion
Rising Block
Stance
Front stance

Blocking area

Top of Head

Movement

Put both hands on waist and hold.  Execute both hands with rising form and block top of head. 

Hand position

Stop both hands crossed on center of head.  The point of crossing wrist should be one fist distance from the forehead and keep 45 degrees up.  Actual blocking area is not back of fist, but around one or two inches inside of wrist. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hands
  • Position of wrists

Caution

  • Suppose that counter part attacks with stick.
  • The blocking hands should not bother focus.

 

16)

Name of Motion
Spear Fingers
Stance
Front stance

Attacking area

Solar Plexus

Movement

Same with middle punch except spear fingers and supporting elbow with the other hand at same time.  The blocking hand is for ready motion for next move.

Hand position

Stop one hand at the solar plexus area with completely straightens fingers and support executing elbow with the other hand. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hands
  • Position of wrists

Caution

  • Like the middle punch, armpit should be closed for accurate and powerful attack using waist.

 

17)

Name of Motion
Side-Punch
Stance
Riding stance

Attacking area

Solar Plexus or rip

Movement

Keep executing fist on waist and swing the other hand naturally for effective waist power and hold.  Execute fist from the ready motion on waist as soon as the foot touch the ground.  One should walk on straight. 

Tip: suppose that grab the counter party and pull and punch.

Hand position

Stop executing hand on solar plexus height and the other hand on ready punch.

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Complete side standing

Check Points

  • Focus (forwarding direction)
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hands

Caution

  • Need proper practice to walk straight. 

 

18)

Name of Motion
Front Elbow
Stance
Front stance

Attacking area

Solar Plexus

Movement

Lift and bend elbow tightly and hold.  Strike solar plexus with front part of elbow.  In the moment of striking, horizontal movement is important.  If one bend elbow tightly, then he can gather more power on elbow and can avoid elbow injury. 

Hand position

Stop elbow on solar plexus area. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of elbow
  • Position of elbow

Caution

  • Do not swing forearm, but strike
  • Bend more for more powerful attack.

 

19)

Name of Motion
Side Elbow
Stance
Riding stance

Attacking area

Solar Plexus

Movement

Lift and cross both arms and bend elbow tightly and hold.  Strike solar plexus with back part of elbow like sliding motion.  In the moment of striking, horizontal movement is important.  If one bend elbow tightly, then he can gather more power on elbow and can avoid elbow injury. 

Hand position

Stop elbow on solar plexus area. 

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Complete side standing

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of elbow
  • Position of elbow

Caution

  • Practice to walk straight.
  • Bend more for more powerful attack.

 

20)

Name of Motion
Side Knife-Hand and Punch
Stance
Back stance

Attacking area

Neck and Solar Plexus (Combination Motions)

Movement

Attack neck with one hand and side punch with the other hand. Two hand motions in one back stance. 
Tip: After execution of the neck attack, suppose that one pull and make a side punch with the other hand.  

Hand position

Neck height one hand and solar plexus height with the other hand.   

Focus

Straight and 15 degrees up from the eye’s height

Balance

Neutral (DAN)

Shoulder

Straight to the front

Check Points

  • Focus
  • Shoulder
  • Stances
  • Height of hands

Caution

  • It is hard to keep the balance on neutral position executing combination motions.  Need a lot of practice
  • Most of beginners have tilted shoulder and leaning body.
  • The balance of the stance should not be moved.

 

10. Poomse (Forms)

 

The Forms are essential parts of TAE KWON DO.  Any sport needs stable, habitual motions.  TAE KWON DO also needs good habitual movements.  Practice of the Form is the best way to develop good habits.  First, the practitioner will become accustomed to making rhythms through the repetition of the Forms.  The Form is composed of several motions combined with the hand, the step, and/or the kick.  It is like a song.  Once the practitioner begins the Form, the rhythms should be connected one after another.  The most basic Forms follow the triple beat rhythm, like the European waltz.  The waltz consists of two weak beats and one strong beat.  In this Form, it is required that one finishes an attack on the third beat.  Nevertheless, as music flowing continuously even during rests, motions in the Form should be smoothly connected to the next motion.  When we block or attack, power is maximized at the moment we strike the target, but the power will still flow.  This power is used to produce the next powerful motion.  For this reason, the connection of the rhythm is critical to the usage and production of power. 

Yelling is an important factor in the use of the inner power through the power produced from the waist.  When our motions are executed at same time with the hand, the footstep, the focus, and the waist, we can generate effective inner power, which is stronger than external power.  Yelling is a good point to start when practicing inner power.  The sound comes from deep inside (the DAN), not from throat or chest or the back of head.  Since the sound of yelling comes from the DAN, yelling can be a measure of the amount of inner power.  Yelling can also be a catalyst in maximizing power.  There are several benefits of yelling in TAE KWON DO.  First, yelling helps bring concentration to a single movement.  Second, loud yelling will bring up confidence to the practitioner.  It is very practical to the inexperienced. Yelling has not only physical benefits but also a mental benefit to the practitioner.  The practitioner can practice yelling while doing Forms.  As they repeat, inner power will develop simultaneously.

Focus is another significant factor in TAE KWON DO.  The body follows the point of focus by nature.  This means that one cannot strike a target with much accuracy without good focus.  In free sparring, if one does not look at party’s eyes, one cannot see the motion of his opponent.  In other word, if one watches the opponent's hand motion, he cannot block the opponent's kick attack or vice versa.  In many cases, one can overwhelm the opponent without fighting with a good, developed focus.

Balance is a major point of practicing poomse in TAE KWON DO. Except in a few cases, we move our balance in a horizontal direction in TAE KWON DO.  When the balance is moves in a vertical direction, the center of the body will become unstable and unready to defend the opponent's attacks.  In addition, once the balance moves in the vertical direction, the stepping distance is limited in following defender when free sparring.  Therefore, if practitioner’s body moves up and down while practicing poomse, it means his poomse does not have a stable balance. During practice poomse, the balance should move horizontally only.

Rhythm is another important element while practicing poomse.  A poomse is like a song.  Music flows continuously from the beginning to the end with mixed beats.  For example, the triple beat is a routine with one strong beat and two weak beats.  But, all three beats are connected smoothly and flow until the whole song is over.  During the poomse, the practitioner needs effective power at the moment of hitting the target.  Before striking the target, he only needs his body to move quickly.  For two beats, take the ready motions, then finish the motion at the third, strong beat accompanied with a yell.  The use of power from the waist should be focused at same time to maximize that power.  Even though the attack is executed, the power should still flow.  Thus, the practitioner should use this flowing power to connect to the next set of motions.  Therefore, all the motions in poomse should be connected to each other in a channel of power.  One poomse looks like a stanza of a song.  When the practitioner takes advantage of the rhythm, the motion looks very flexible.  If the practitioner uses music, especially triple beat music like the Waltz, then it is a lot easier to take rhythms and practice TAE KWON DO effectively. 

 

11. Self-Defense

 

            All creatures, which have lives, regardless of its kind, have the instinct to protect themselves in order to preserve their own life and have developed all sorts of defensive behaviors. From this, it is unnecessary to explain about the human race, which have struggled for survival throughout history.  We do not know where and when we would face danger.  Once we confront a dangerous situation, we must escape from this situation.  In order to do that, humans need to have the power or skills. Physical power is not enough in many cases.  Furthermore, a man who, naturally, has no strong power, there is no way to escape.  However, everyone can learn TAE KWON DO, even the elderly.  People who have learned self-defense skills can use their hands, feet, and other body parts as weapons.  Therefore, in a dangerous situation, people can protect themselves.  The power of TAE KWON DO has been known widely.  Practitioners break wooden boards, bricks, stones, ice cube, and spring plate steel with bare hands.  In this manner, practitioners can protect their bodies.  In addition, they can protect the neighborhood from injustice and danger. Self-defense is the protection oneself, the neighborhood, and society.

            There are different kinds of Self-defense.  In self-defense, situations involving armed assailants, single or otherwise, are extremely dangerous and more complex than any type of unarmed attack.  Accordingly, defense techniques must be learned thoroughly and executed automatically in response to any situation, if serious injury is to be avoided.

            In facing an armed opponent, it is of foremost importance to observe his facial tone and his state of bodily preparedness, such as the sort of weapon being used, how he is going to use it, etc.  Having these mentally assimilated, you should gauge your distance accurately in order to fully control and exploit your defense techniques.  By this time, two choices are open to you – one is to get outside the swing zone, the other is to get inside the swing zone.  Dodging too far from your opponent may make it virtually impossible to counter-attack in time, while being too close could well hamper your motions.  Being 2 steps away from your opponent do not offer the advantage of a better striking range than being one step away.  Clearly, it is undesirable to attack with more than two steps distance.

            In other situations, one is sometimes caught off-guard as the attacker moves in on you, then it is more necessary to exercise keen reflexes in the eyes and limbs under such circumstances.  Immediately determine what he is aiming at, and then gauge your distance precisely thereby enabling you to apply those blocking and/or attacking technique most suited to you.

 

1)      How to avoid a knife attack

The defender should not become excited, nonetheless, carefully study his attacker and discern the direction of the attacker's knife.  The defender must keep his body away from the knife and stay in a position to counter-attack.  The defender’s movements should always be brisk and accurate, and include the trunk twist.  With the skill in the execution of the twist, improvement in the art of self-defense would surely be hindered if the trunk twist technique were not altogether acquired.  To escape a knife attack, one should also select the opponent’s weakest parts as the first target for a counter-attack to be truly effective.

 

2)      Defense against a sudden attack with knife

Attacks may arise at the most unpredictable circumstances.  The defender, under all circumstances, should be totally aware even when no direct offensive motive is visible, even when a relaxed conversation is taking place between himself and his assailant.  The attacker has the advantage of a surprise attack, however, a well-trained Tae Kwon Do student will be able to defeat or counter any surprise assault.  The attainment of good skills in sparring, real world experiences, and good skills in counter-attacking will further accelerate that student toward achieving the acuity and keenness of the reflexes.

 

PICTURE (43-59)

 

3)      How to relieve an attacker of a pistol

An armed attacker is usually agitated and he might discharge his weapon.  Distraction is a useful method in gaining time to get into position to counter-attack for the defender.  The defender should give the appearance that he is very calm and slowly move his body away from the direction the attacker’s pistol to reduce the target area.  The defender must be close enough to the attacker in order to be able to kick or knock the offender’s pistol away: so, careful calculation of the distance is very important.  Controlling the attacker's wrist should be sufficient in making him drop the weapon, or at least it will deflect the direction the pistol, enabling the defender to counter-attack with further kicks or blows.

 

4)      How to escape a grab

There are quite a few techniques in releasing an assailant’s grab, but in order to apply them effectively requires an understanding of the posture, balance, and mobile forces of the offender.  The defender should endeavor to use the opponent’s momentum and his instinctive pulling by pushing the grabbing the hand or other such technique, which aims to cancel the opponent’s span of control.

      With arms and legs moving at the same time, grab with both hands, the grabbing hand of the opponent, and exert pressure on the weak points of his hand.  Immediately twist the opponent’s hand while executing a trunk twist in order to gain strength to throw the opponent off balance.

 

12. Combination hand techniques

     

      F: Front Stance 

      B: Back Stance  

      R: Riding Stance

 

      No. 1            Low Block (F) -> Middle Punch  (F) -> Outer Forearm (F)

      No. 2            Low Block (F) -> High      Block (F) -> Outer Forearm (F)

      No. 3            Low Block (F) -> Outer Forearm (F) -> Outer Knife Hand (F)

      No. 4          Knife Hand Low Block )B) -> Knife Fist Low Block (B) -> Knife Hand Middle Block (B) -> Knife Fist Middle Block (B) -> Middle Punch (F)

      No. 5            High Block (F) -> Inner Forearm (B) -> Outer Forearm (B)

                        Same with Back Step

      No. 6            Pressing & Rising Block (F) -> Knife Hand Middle Block (B) ->

Spear Finger (F) -> Turning Side Punch (F) -> Middle Punch (F)

      No. 7            Pressing Block (F) -> Spear Finger (F)

      No. 8          Swallow Form Neck Attack (F) -> Wedging Block (F) -> Swallow Form Open Fist (F)

No. 9          Pressing & Rising Block (F) -> Upper Wedging Block (F) -> One Side Kum Kang Block (R)

      No. 10            Side Knife Hand (B) -> Spear Finger (F) -> Turning Side Punch (R)

      No. 11        Knife Hand Low Block & Adam’s Apple Attack (F) -> Pressing Block -> Upper Wedging Block (F)

 

13. Combination of kicks

 

      No. 1            Front -> Side -> Roundhouse

      No. 2            Roundhouse -> Reverse Roundhouse -> Stepping Roundhouse

      No. 3            Roundhouse -> Stepping Roundhouse

      No. 4            Inside to Outside -> Stepping Roundhouse

      No. 5            Roundhouse -> Turning Side

      No. 6            Reverse Roundhouse ->j Turning Side -> Stepping Side

      No. 7            Changing Step Target -> Turn Around Target -> Stepping Side

      No. 8            Hook -> Stepping roundhouse -> Stepping Side

      No. 9            Reverse Roundhouse -> Roundhouse -> Turning Side

      No. 10            Hook -> Roundhouse -> Turning Side

      No. 11            Hook -> Roundhouse -> Turning

      No. 12            1) 360 degrees Turning king (with step)

                        2) 360 degrees Turning Twice (without step)

 

14. Demonstration

 

1.       Highest Poomse in the group

  1. Turning Side Kick Tornado Kick
  2. Turning Kick Flying Front Kick
  3. Poomse
  4. Flying Side Kick & 4 Target Turning Kick
  5. Speed Breaking with Turning Kick
  6. One Step Sparring Middle Class
  7. Consecutive Kicks
  8. Free Sparring
  9. Combination Breaking
  10. High Light of the Master

 

15. Promotions & Retest & Make-up Test

 

           

Level

 1st Form

2nd Form

3rd Form

Kicks

Self-Def.

One Step

Free Spar

Break

White 

Kicho

1

Kicho

2

Kicho 3

Front

Side

Roun-house

N/A

1 - 3

N/A

N/A

Yellow

Kicho

1

Kicho

2

Kicho 3

 

 

4 – 6

Only attack

N/A

Orange

Kicho

3

Kicho

4

Kicho

5

 

 

7 – 9

Both attack

Elbow

Purple 

Kicho

5

P’an

1

P’an

2

 

 

10-12

V

Front or Side

Green           

P’an

1

P’an

2

P’an

3

 

 

13-15

V

Stepping kick

Blue

P’an

2

P’an

3

P’an

4

 

 

16-18

V

Turning kick

Brown

P’an

3

P’an

4

P’an

5

 

 

19-21

V

Stepping or

flying

Red

P’an

4

P’an

5

Tiger

1

 

 

22-24

V

Flying kick

1st Dan Black

Tiger

1

Batsai

Koryo

 

 

*

V

Combination

hand & foot

2nd Dan Black

4 forms required

Batsai

Koryo

 

&

 

Kum’gn

Nahan’ji

 

 

*

V

 

 

16. Description of Kicks and Checking Points of Self-improvement and

      Self- identifying Skills

 

      1)

Name of Kick
Front Kick

Target

Groin, thigh, solar plexus, and chin, and etc.

Kick

  1. Raise the folded knee of the kicking leg up to your breast and quickly push the foot forward, fully stretching the leg out.
  2. The foot must make a straight line toward the target.  The ball of foot must kick the target with the toes bending outward. 
  3. The attacking foot is drawn back to its original position.  The foot should be placed where the attacker can easily make the next move.  If the attacker is off balance while he executes or retreats a kick, the kick is not perfect. 
  4. The supporting leg on the ground should not be straight before or during the kick.  Standing upright will cause the attacker to fall down, weaken the force of kicking, and it would not be easy to execute the next moves.
  5. If the entire sole of foot supports the standing leg, the weight is laid on the hip joint and the knee joint.  This will case the kick to be slower and weaker without impulsive force.  Sometimes the knee joint or the hip joint will break away, therefore, it is necessary to lift the heel slightly by stretching the ankle so that the ball of foot may pivot at the moment of a kick.  Then the back sole will touch the ground again after the kick. Stretching the ankle too much will lift the center of weight.

 

* The ball of foot is generally used in the front kick but occasionally the toes are also used when such vital parts as groin and solar plexus are to be targeted.  The foot back also can be used in the front kick uniquely for an attack of groin.

 

Here are several benefits of tighten bending knee;

1)      The defender cannot block it easily. 

2)      The attacker has a less change to kick the defender’s elbow. 

3)      The attacker can switch to another kick. 

4)      The attacker will be ready for the next move right after the kick. 

5)      The attacker can make double or triple kicks in one attack.

Balance

The balance should be a little on the front (in fact, this is a way to put the balance on the center of body in the time of attack). Balance focused backward has high risks in free sparring because 1) there is no power.  2) After the attack will be the best distance for the defender’s counter-attack.  3) Combination attacks will not be available.

Hand Position

You need to block the face area when kicking the middle, and when one makes high kick, you need to block the middle of the body.  If possible, do not exposure armpit.  Both arms should be close to the body all the times.

 

* Caution: Never drop your hands below your belt.  A high front kick will defend the attacker’s face, so he needs a to block his middle area.  Execution of the center front kick will defend the attacker’s middle area, so he needs high block.  But if the attacker drops his hands below the belt, the middle or high area will be open for a counter-attack.

Foot Position

The moment one strikes the target:

·         The ball of foot should stop on the target.  (If the foot shakes, the power is dispersed.)

·         The ankle should be stretched out as much as possible.

·         Use the ball of your foot: all toes should be bent outward.

Check Points

You can correct your by examining the aftermath of your kick; 

·         Can you keep your balance?

·         Where is your balance, front, back, or neutral?

·         Is your ankle stretched out?  (If your ankle is bent inside, tension will be on thigh, it will obstruct a high kick and may a cause muscle injury.)  

·         Do you use area of the ball of foot?  (All toes must bend backward, then you can gather more power on the ball of foot and can kick hard without tension in thigh muscle.)

·         Can you stop your foot exactly on the target?  (If you make an incorrect front kick, the moment you strike target, you foot will pass the target, which means the maximum power executed is after you pass your target.  This will result in pushing instead of kicking.  If the ball of foot shakes when you finish the kick, the power will disperse before the execution of kicking.  When the kick executes correctly, the kick will stop without shaking and the ball of foot will deliver your waist power.)

 

      2)

Name of Kick
Side-kick

Target

Groin, knee, flanks, solar plexus, face, and etc.

Kick

  1. Lift up your kicking leg while folding the knee simultaneously.  Stretch the folded knee, and kick the target with the foot-sword.  (Refer to chapter 6, Use of Body Part of Attack and Defense)
  2. After the kick, draw the kicking leg back to its original position or where it is intended to be placed for the next move.  At this moment of the kick, keep the eye fixed on the target.  The target is determined according to the opponent’s position; if the opponent is facing the front, the target will be the face or the solar plexus.  If the opponent stands sideways, the target is the flank or the side of the chin.
  3. The other leg supporting the body will assist the kick by pivoting on its fore sole, stretching the ankle and accelerating the speed of kick by stretching its knee.  At the time of retreating the kicking leg, the supporting leg’s ankle and knee will be lowered again.
  4. At the moment of a side-kick, the upper body should not be falling in the direction opposite of the target.  The degree of falling depends on the practitioner’s flexibility.  If the body is falling too low, the balance will be oat the back of the body, and it will be hard to connect to combination kick(s).  Therefore, the upper part of the body must be raised as high as possible so that the entire body may form a y-letter shape, enabling the weight to be converted into the impellent force of kick.

 

·         The side-kick applies the back sole and the footsword in attacking and they must move on a straight line from the starting point to the target.

 

Balance

  1. Center balance: apply any combination kicks for the following kicks.
  2. Forward balance: Stepping and jumping kicks are recommended. Powerful and fast, but some chances of counter-attack.
  3. Backward balance: High risks in free sparring 1) no power.  2) After the kick, the distance is the best distance for defender’s counter-attack.  3) Not available for combination attacks.

Hand Position

Same with the front kick.

 

Foot Position

The moment one strikes the target:

·         Front part of foot must be down.  If it is up, the power will be on back sole, instead of footsword.

·         The ankle should be bent inward tightly to gather power on footsword area.

·         When toes are toward down, attacker can use footsword effectively.

Check Points

You can correct whether your kick is right or wrong through after kick motions as follow; 

·         Where is your balance, front, back, or neutral?

·         Is your ankle bent? (If your ankle is not bent inside, there will be no destructive power, and all power will be dispersed on whole foot.

·         Can you feel power in your foot?

·         Are back of head, back of body, and back heel straight? If it is not a straight, direction of power must be curved and waist power will not be delivered to the footsword and result as follow;

1)      The kick feels weak.

2)      The kick is not straight; you land a kick after passing the target. 

3)      If the defender executes a simultaneous counter-attack, there is high possibility of injury the inside of the thigh. 

4)      The Choice of Connecting the kick is limited.  You tend to expose the chest while the kick contacts and to use the stepping side-kick.

·         Is your foot shaking on target area?  (If your foot does not deliver your waist power, that means your foot was shaking at the moment of impact.  You cannot hit the center of target while your power is weak.  Then it will be pushing instead kicking. 

·         When kick is executed correctly, the kick will be stopped without shaking and your waist power will be delivered by your foot effectively.)

 

How to correct:

·         Look at your foot over your shoulder to make sure your body is straight.

·         Lift up your leg up to your chest and keep the side sole and chest on straight line and stretch out.  

·         The turning motion is important.  Lifting your leg and turning should be done at the same time quickly and sharply to avoid the defender’s advancing or simultaneous attack. 

 

      3)

Name of Kick
Round-House Kick

Target

Flanks, solar Plexus, front & side of face, and etc.

Kick

·         Lift up your kicking leg and folding the knee simultaneously, keep the thigh and chest on a straight line.  Then stretch bent knee, and kick the target with ball of the foot.  This is a difficult technique to use waist power with because the radius of waist is too short to use.  Therefore the you must use the snap of your waist power.  A beginner starts from their snap power without waist power. Later, they will learn through repetition.

·         The position of your chest is same with the side kick. 

·         The track of foot must be on a straight line toward the target.  The target must be kicked by the ball of foot, the toes outward. 

·         The kicking foot is drawn back automatically to its original position. The foot is placed where you can easily make the next move.  If you keep out of balance while executing a kick or retreating the kicking foot, the kick is not perfect.

·         The supporting leg on the ground should fully extend before or during the kick, since the upright standing will cause loss of balance or a less flexible kick.  Nor is it easy to execute the next moves.

·         If the entire sole of foot supports the standing leg, the weight is laid on the hip joint and the knee joint.  This will cause the kick to be slower, weaker without the force of impulse, and hard to connect to next moves smoothly.  Sometimes, the knee joint or the hip joint will break away.  It is necessary to lift the heel slightly by stretching the ankle so that the ball of foot may pivot at the moment of the kick and then the back sole will touch the ground again after the kick.  Be careful not to stretch the ankle too much because it would lift up the center of the weight. Standing will direct the balance forward, but when striking target, you may sustain the balance in the middle and easily apply the next moves.

* TIP: If the angle of the kick is between 30 to 45 degrees, then it can be used for fast counter-attack after moving a half step backward.  This speedy kick can be switched to a pushing kick or in-to-out or out-to-in shortly.

Balance

·         Mid-balance: Easy to apply combination kicks.  Absolute middle balanced kick is no practical kick at all in sparring.  This kick should not be used a single attack, but initial kick in the combination kicks to tempt the defender.

·         Front balance: Because the chances are slim to success to attack the defender with the first kick, the balance must be on forward for speedy and powerful combination kicks.

·         Back-balance: High risks in free sparring; 1) no power.  2) The distance is the best distance for defender’s counter-attack after the kick.  3) Not available for combination attacks.

 

 TIP:

1. Back-balance can be used as strategically in the sparring.  When attacker derives defender’s counter attack, the back-balance can be used for a half step back kick as a counter attack against a defender’s counter attack. 

2. Because the chest is turned in the first move, it is risky to change the direction of the chest again in the same direction.  Minimal turning in kicks is recommended when turning in the opposite direction.

Hand Position

Same with front kick.

Foot Position

The moment of striking the target:

·         The best position of the foot when striking a target is attack ninety degrees from the target.  The snapping motion should be moved horizontally on the straight.

·         The ball of foot should be stop on the target.  (If the ball of foot is shaking, the power is dispersed throughout the foot.)

·         The ankle should be stretched out as much as possible.

·         Use the ball of foot: all toes should be bent outward.

 

TIP: Stretching the ankle more with the toes outward will help relax the thigh muscle.  Then you can execute and return kicks quickly.  It will also reduce the chance of injury in the thigh muscle.

Check Points

You can correct whether your kick is right or wrong through after kick motions as follow; 

·         Where is your balance, front, back, or neutral?

·         Is your ankle stretched out? (If ankle is not stretched out, power will be in the hill of the foot, instead of ball of the foot, making the kick weak and the thigh muscle will be tight form tension.  This may be a cause of muscle aches breaks when kicked by defender’s knee. 

·         Can you feel power on the ball of your foot?

·         Is the back of head, back of body and back heel straight with the target?  If not, the direction of power is curved and the kick will swing in motion and result in the following:

1)      A weak kick. 

2)      The kicking leg will land after passing the target. 

3)      You will not be ready for the next move right after finishing the kick.  If the defender executes a simultaneous counter-attack, you will not be ready to defend. 

4)      The Choice of Connecting the kick is limited.  Turning to the side or turning the kick is open for the next move.  This has several problems; a) you did not understand the concept of straightness yet.  b) Bad habits not only in this kick, but in also in other kicks.  c) He has only a few free sparring strategies and uses them habitually no matter what the situations.

·         Is ball of foot shaking on target area?  (If your waist power is not delivered by ball of foot, the foot is shaken when the target is kicked.  You cannot hit the center of target with accuracy and power will disperse into whole foot.  Then it will become pushing instead kicking. 

·         When a kick is executed correctly, the kick will stop without shaking and the power of the waist power will be deliver from the ball of the foot effectively.

 

How to correct:

·         Keep a straight chest and front side of thigh after turning 90 degrees.  Without moving the body and the thigh, just snap the round-house kick.  The knee should not be moved; only shin and foot.  After kick, whole body should be straight. 

 

Caution: This is kicks can be easy to counter-attack because the front of the body is exposed to the defender’s turning or turning side-kicks.

 

      4)

4)
 Back-kick

Kick

·         From a standing position, you lift up your kicking leg and stretch it backwards to deliver the kick.  The back sole is used for the kick

·         The end of the kick is similar to the side-kick.

·         The foot of the foreleg is used to kick, but the back leg can be applied for this kick after it is drawn closer to the foreleg.  This case can be applied when the opponent is at a distance while the latter when the opponent is closer to you.

·         The eyes are directed on the kicking side and the supporting leg may not stretch the knee and the ankle as in the side-kick.

·         The upper part of the body leans more forward than in the side-kick.

 

TIP: The turning motion is the key of this kick.  Although your body is turning, the center of your body is moving horizontally.  In any motion, there are no circular motions.  Your back leg must move straight to kick.  When you move straight turning and lifting leg simultaneously, the leg itself will defend your body.

 

 

      5)

Name of Kick
Turning kick

Kick

·         Putting the weight on the pivoting foot, you turn the body immediately after folding the knee.  As the knee stretches, it makes the kicking foot circle horizontally so that the front sole may kick the target. 

·         The supporting leg stretches its ankle and knee to help the sole pivot the body.

·         The kicking leg must stop at the time of kicking the target without making a follow-through.

·         Unlike the front kick and side kick, the kicking foot does not make a straight track.  The foot is first raised and then begins to move in a circle.

·         After some hard training, the turning kick will be able to make a pounding kick from above the target at the time of kick.

 

The basic techniques of kicks consist of front kick, side-kick, and round-house kick.  Turning kick is one of applied kick of round-house kick.

 

 

      6)

Name of Kick
Pushing kick

Kick

·         The way of kicking is the same as the front kick, but kicking is slowed down, merely pushing the target instead of inflicting a blow.

·         This is used when the target is close.  Instead of inflicting damage, this technique is intended to throw down or push away the opponent.

·         The foot-blade or the sole of foot is used for this kick.

 

TIP: The advantage of this kick is to adjust the distance determining on the situation: short or long distance and the kick's power depending on the reaction of waist.  The disadvantage of this kick is that in the case of failure of an attack, the defender will have a position to attack, but you will be not ready.

 

      7)

Name of Kick
Ax kick

Kick

·         The kicking leg is lifted high up above the opponent’s head and the kick is inflicted by bringing down the leg, keeping the knee stretched.

·         If the opponent is not too close, just lift up the folded knee to the center of your body and then make a downward kick by bringing down the foot.

·         When the opponent is close and your leg is lifted up from the inside your body, the out-to-in is possible to be made.  If the kicking leg is lifted up from the out side of the attacker, the in-to-out is possible.

·         The heel and the sole are used for this kick. 

 

In-to-Out: This kick is executed by making the kicking foot draw a circle from outside to inside.  The back of foot blade is used for this technique.

Out-to-In: The opposite way of In-to-Out.

 

TIP:

·         Good stretching is required.  This technique can be applied to the turning kick, which means turning around downward kick.

·         The best boundary of turning is within the shoulder area.  The right foot should not exceed the left shoulder and vise versa.

 

 

 

     

     8)

Name of Kick
Jumping kick

Kick

·         This technique is kicking with one foot while the body jumps into the air.

·         It is possible to perform this technique from a back stance with two feet wide apart because the both feet will push off the ground simultaneously to jump.  Either the fore foot or back foot alone can push the ground to lift up the body in the air.

·         When the fore foot is used to deliver a kick, it is called the jump kick.

·         If the body turns backward by jumping in the air and performs a kick by the back foot, it is called the jump half-turning kick. 

 

TIP: Differences of Jump, Stepping, and Flying kicks

·         Jumping Kicks: For higher kicks.

·         Stepping Kicks: For longer kicks.

·         Flying Kicks: For passing over barriers/obstacles.  The other side of kicking leg should be tightly bent.

 

18. Class design

                                                                                     (Each class: 90 minutes)

Items

Unit

Mon.

Tue.

Wed.

Thu.

Fri.

Warm-up (Full)

30 min

*

*

*

*

*

Warm-up (partial)

15 min

*

*

*

*

*

Stretch

  8/side

*

*

*

*

*

16 Basic Motions

5/motion

*

*

*

*

*

14 Basic Motions

*

*

*

*

*

Basic Kicks

5/side

*

*

*

*

*

Advanced Kicks

*

*

*

*

*

One step sparring

10 min

 

*

 

*

 

Combination kicks

15 min

 

 

*

 

*

Kick w/Stretch bar

20 min

*

 

 

 

 

Arranged free spar.

15 min

 

 

 

*

 

Free sparring

15 min

 

 

 

 

*

 

Stretch:                 Front, In-to-Out, Out-to-In

Basic Kick:               Front, Side, Round-house

(Ex.: 5/side is for the left and right side.)

      Advanced Kick:               Stepping front, steeping side, stepping round-house kicks

Combination Motion:       See the list in chapter 17 & 18

      Arranged free sparring: One side attacks while the other side defenses.

      Free sparring:            Safety equipment needed for the head, mouth, chest, shin, and in-step.

 

To Instructor:

1.       Wait for students from fifteen minutes before the class hour  

2.       Plan each class in advance.  Do not play by ear!

3.       Dependence is always an import factor.  Don’t push your plan, but read each student's rhythms.

4.       Make the students rhythms part of your plan. 

5.       Do not wait for a chance, but make the chance.

6.       Love the students, then you will see what they need.

7.       When you love teaching, then you will develop your own way of teaching.

8.       Tae Kwon Do starts with etiquette and finishes with etiquette.

9.       Do not leave the school before the students.

10.   Motivation is better than just teaching techniques.

 

19. Training Schedule

 

Belt/ Dan

Theory

Techniques

White

  1. The purpose of learning Tae Kwon Do.
  2. The spirit of Tae Kwon Do.
  3. Matters that need special attention
  4. Etiquettes
  5. How to tie a belt.
  6. How to hold a uniform.

7.   The basic vital points

  1. Warm-ups
  2. Stretches
  3. How to grip a fist
  4. Basic stances
  5. 16 Basic Motions
  6. Kicho 1&2 Bo

7.   3 basic kicks

  1. One step sparring one to three

 

Yellow to Green

  1. The history of TKD
  2. The names of vital points.
  3. Theory of the basic forms (Kicho  & Pyung an       Dan)

1.      Basic forms: Kicho to Pyungan    Dan

2.      Principle of blocking

3.      Principle of attacking

4.      Hand blocks

5.      Advanced kicks

6.      One step sparring

7.      Combination of kicks

8.      Combination of hands

       9.   Free sparring

Blue to Brown

  1. The concept and definition of TKD
  2. Rules and regulations
  3. Injury Information
  4. Development of free sparring strategies
  1. Forms
  2. Advanced kicks

Hook kick

Turning kick

Flying kick

  1. Free sparring

Free style (tournament style)

  1. Breaking
  2. Self defense

1st to 2nd Dan

  1. Tournament rules and regulations
  2. Free sparring strategies
  3. Fundamental scientific theory of TKD
  4. Theory of rhythm in TKD
  5. Leadership training
  1. Forms
  2. Free sparring

One to two

  1. Multi target breaking
  2. Aero double kicks
  3. Breaking

Technical breaking

Speed breaking

Power breaking

 

20. Personal Basic Routine Training (daily)

 

Part of Body

Description

Unit

Hand

  1. 16 Basic Motions

10/motion

  1. 14 Advanced Motions

Foot

 

  1. Front Stretch

10/side

      2.   Front Kick

      3.   Side Stretch

15/side

      4.  Center Side Kick

20/side

      5.  High Side Kick

10/side

      6.   Round-House Kick

      7.   Twisted Front Kick

 8/side

      8.   Hook Kick

      9.   Descending kick

    10.   Turning Side Kick

    11.   Jumping Kick

            (Front, side, round-house, Turning side)

    12.   Half-Step Kick & Turning Side Kick

5/side

    13.   Turning Kick

10/side

    14.   Flying Kick (Front, Side, Round-House)

5/side

    15.   One-Two Punch & One-Two Target Kick

10 times

Form

Forms for your level.

3 x form

Free sparring

One Step Sparring

5 times

Arranged Free Sparring

2min x 5

Free-Style Free Sparring

2 min x 5

Special Training

Sandbag: Concentrate on accuracy and speed

10 x kick

Forging on a wooden pole: Fist and Back-Fist

                                Front, Side, Round-House Kick

50 x each

10 x each

Forging on concrete: Knife Hand (Inside and                   

                                  Outside)

50 x each

Kicking a Target

15 min

 

     Notes:

  1. Stances are very important.
  2. Develop good habits.
  3. Repeat combination motions until they become habits.
  4. All training begins from slow to fast, partial to whole, and light to heavy.
  5. All training ends from fast to slow.
  6. Kicks: start from ground kicks, stepping, jumping, and flying kicks in that order.
  7. Focus, balance, yelling, and waist power, all should be trained same time.
  8. Do not trust your feelings, rhythm, and mood.  Always think from students’ side. Control yourself.  Stay on schedule. 
  9. An hour of daily regular training is more important than ten hours every other day.
  10. Set your goal.  You can do it!

 

  21. Advanced Routine Training for Competitor

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

* Warm-up

            Stretching

 

Running     (4km)               

 

Round trip

    (10mx4 times)

 

Punch & kick

    (20mx 5 times)

 

Sit-up            (50)

 

Side step        (50)

 

Stomach Pushing

                    (100)

 

Jump-over back

                      (50)

 

Sit-0n neck

                 (400m)

 

Zigzag Run

                 (200m)

 

Weight training

 

Bench Press

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Wrist curl

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Two hand press

 

Knee lift

          (10 x 3 set)

 

Calf raise

 

* Warm-up

             Stretching

 

Running      (4km)               

 

Running Up/Down Hill

(round trip)

(20m x 5 times)

 

Pitching Run      

(10m x3 times)

 

One Leg Run

(hill)    (100m)

 

Zigzag Run

(hill)        (200m)

 

Basic Kicks

(hill)

 

Weight training

 

Bench Press

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Wrist curl

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Two hand press

 

Knee lift

          (10 x 3 set)

 

Calf raise

 

* Warm-up

             Stretching

 

Running      (5km)               

 

Stair Running

(round trip)

 

Stair running

(2 stairs with two feet together)

 

Stair running

(with one foot)

 

Stair running

Zigzag

 

Stair walking

(sit like duck and walk up)

 

Seat and jump 2 stairs, 2 feet same time

 

Stair walking

(1 person on the back)

 

Weight training

 

Bench Press

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Wrist curl

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Two hand press

 

Knee lift

          (10 x 3 set)

 

Calf raise

 

* Warm-up

             Stretching

 

Running      (4km)               

 

Light running

(mountain)  (2.5km)

 

Huddle jump

(6 level)

 

Huddle jump

(jumping kicks)

(flying kicks)

 

Round

   (100mx 5 times)

 

Interval training      

    (30m x 3 times)

    (20m x 2 times)

    (10m x 5 times)

   (400m x 1 time)

 

Weight training

 

Bench Press

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Wrist curl

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Two hand press

 

Knee lift

          (10 x 3 set)

 

Calf raise

 

* Warm-up

            Stretching

 

Running     (4km)               

 

Running

 (100m x 3 times)

 

Interval training      

   (30m x 3 times)

   (20m x 2 times)

   (10m x 5 times)

   (400m x 1 time)

 

Jumping

          Huddle

          Both feet

          Long jump

          Front

          Back

          Right

          Left

 

Push-ups        (50)

 

Side step        (50)

 

Stomach Pushs

                    (100)

 

Weight training

 

Bench Press

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Wrist Curl

           (10 x 3 set)

 

Two Hand Press

 

Knee Lift

          (10 x 3 set)

 

Calf Raise

 

 

22. Method of Training

 

A trainee’s problem is how to improve techniques, but trainer’s problem is how to make trainee’s techniques.  Therefore the trainer has to focus on a method of instruction.

Instruction methods should be different according to the size of the class, the level of students, and the condition of the class.  Most classes are composed of mixed levels so the trainer needs skills to manage class effectively. 

I will divide three parts to explain about structure of class: Stages of Introduction, Development, and Closing.

 

    1. Stages of Introduction

 

An instructor must check a student’s condition before class and lead all the students in the same rhythm.  Positive motivation is the best way to lead students.  The instructor must retain a proper distance from all students.  The following things are what an instructor should notice in the stage of introduction:

 

a)      Lining up

b)      Checking attendance

c)      Checking uniforms and belts

d)      Motivating

e)      Warming up

 

    1. Stages of Development

 

An instructor should use yelling, instruction, and demonstration to help students’ understand techniques.  The instructor should be achieve following things:

 

a)      Make the class strive to do their best.

b)      Be available to students any time.

c)      Enforce strict rules and regulations.

d)      Observing and supervising students.

e)      Corrections should be made as soon as possible.

f) Let the students know what they will learn in the next level.

 

The instructor must notice the following when demonstrating to students:

 

a)      Focusing on the target.

b)      Requiring accurate demonstrations because students may have a different opinion on one another

c)      The instructor should demonstrate techniques according to the level of students.

d)      The whole motion is better than a part a motion

e)      Divide motions into several steps with slow motions when motions are complicated.

f) Students need to concentrate on the instructor

g)      The instructor must demonstrate common problems.

h)      The instructor must be honest to their students.

i)  Right after the demonstration, the instructor has to make the student practice the same techniques.

 

2)      Stages of Closing

 

The instructor listens to their students on what they learned in the class.  In this time, an evaluation can be made for students, and give them a goal for the next level.  If an instructor finds that a student's body characteristics are different, he can develop techniques for the student and recommend other proper techniques.  Encourage students before you give advice.  They will remember encouragement better than advice. 

 

23. Injury

     

            Any human strives to keep a sound physical condition.  That is a reason many students enroll in Tae Kwon Do these days, although there is a chance of injury.  Therefore, students should research to prevent any kinds of injuries during practice and the instructor must teach students safety rules in the class.

 

3)     Causes of Injury

 

a)      Lack of Skill

 

Tae Kwon Do techniques are developed only through repetition of the same motions for long hours.  Without enough practice, students take risks when advancing techniques and the possibility of injury is very high.  The basic motions are the foundation of construction.  Without a solid foundation, a building cannot be strong.  If a student lacks skill, they need to repeat the basic motions.  Advanced motions should be practiced step by step.  For example, skillful competitors use less energy than typical people do.  After they kick targets, they relax their muscle immediately, thus they can kick faster and wear down slower than unskilled.  When the consummation of energy accumulates over time, the possibility of injury is higher.  Students need to concentrate on basic training more than advanced skills.

 

b)      Lack of Knowledge

 

As all sports have safety regulations, Tae Kwon Do also has regulation for safety.  All students should adhere to them for their colleagues and themselves.  For example, keeping short nails can prevent small, but frequent injuries during practice. 

 

c)      Lack of Attention

 

Carelessness is the greatest cause of injury.  Students must develop good practice habits and attitudes.  Good habits and attitudes are the most effective way to prevent injury.

 

d)      Excess Strain

 

Less experienced competitors feel straining in the free sparring because they want to win although there is no winner or loser in class.  Their muscles are unaccustomed the way their bodies are moving, so they cannot show their real level of techniques and they cannot concentrate on free sparring and they are tire easily.  In this case, the possibility of injury is high.  Students have to practice until they have confidence. 

 

e)      Excessive Training

Excessive training can be a cause of injury because it brings on fatigue.  Contemplative faculty, the ability to judge drops rapidly, and the reflective function of body is lowered.  It can even cause a fractured bone.

 

4)     Prevention of Injury

 

Tae Kwon Do is a certain kind of team practice.  If one person prevents injury but the other people do not, he is a victim of injury.  Instructors and students should recognize how to prevent injury during practice.  The following are noted to prevent unexpected injuries:

 

a)      Practice the basic skills

b)      Before free sparring or competing, warm-up

c)      Train by the schedule and control the quantity of practice

d)      Use safety equipment during free sparring

e)      Build your knowledge about possible injuries

f) Develop good habits in practice

g)      Never relax during free sparring.  An injury can happen in a split second.

h)      Have confidence.  When students are nervous, chances of injury are higher than normal conditions.

 

 

24. Vital Areas

 

            Not everyone knows the names of the various parts in the human body.  In Tae Kwon Do, however, it is necessary for every student to have basic knowledge on the structure of the human body, particularly its vital areas.  The vital areas for Tae Kwon Do are sensitive or fragile points in the body, which are most vulnerable to attack.  It is essential for all students to familiarize themselves with the various degrees of vulnerability on each vital area for an effective offense as well as defense.  Regardless of how concentrated your power may be, if you miss the opponent’s vital spot, it will be difficult for you to get the upper hand.  The illustrations in the next pages show the vial areas in Tae Kwon Do.

 

25. Etiquette

 

Ye” (etiquette) is an essential spirit in Tae Kwon Do training.  Tae Kwon Do practice must begin and end with etiquette.  "Ye" is an abbreviation of "kyongnye".  "Ye" denotes the way that all human beings must follow.  The human spirit stands on the fundamental base, which is respect for humanity.

            "Kyongnye" is a bow that signifies truthful respect to another. In Tae Kwon Do practice, "kyongnye" is a bow bending the upper body approximately fifteen degrees forward.  Bowing symbolizes respect without and humility within.  Adequate and neat appearance with a controlled mental attitude is critical in Tae Kwon Do etiquette.  Bowing is "ye" and "ye" can be cultivated through inner effort.

            Tae Kwon do practitioners must bow when entering and leaving the Dojang (studio), when meeting Sabom-nim (master), and higher ranked students.  Before and after working out with a partner in self-defense, step sparring, or performing the poomse, you must bow in a proper manner.

            The goal of Tae Kwon Do training lies in the attainment of the most ideal human values through rigorous physical and mental practice.  Where the will goes, the body will follow.  The attitude of the mind will eventually determine the way our body will become.  With firm determination in mind, the body will become strong but flexible enough to meet any challenges in daily life.

            Daily practice of an appropriate body posture and mental carriage are important to bring out successful consequences during training.  The basic motions require accurate learning and study.  Tae Kwon Do utilizes every part of the human body as weapons.  Techniques are designed according to kinetic principles which are classified as punching, thrusting, striking and kicking skills.  Strategically categories are attacking, defending and counter-attacking.

            Every technique is based on proper stance with hand-foot skill.  Stance is the first movement of any skill, which produces a variety of combinations.  One basic movement can become a combination of stances and kinetic execution of a hand or foot technique.

            All basic techniques generate a certain amount of force according to the type of technique.  To create maximum power, it is critical to synchronize these three components: smooth execution of technique; mental awareness; and breathing.  The equilibrium - the adequate shift of the center of gravity - concentration is also important.

            The line of the motion such as a linear or circular course and the angle of the feet or arms determine the characteristics of basic movements.

 

Caution for good techniques:

·         Erect posture and relaxed shoulders

·         Focus the energy at the DAN

·         Harmonize motions and breathing

·         Keep your balance and shift the body properly

·         Power must be focused during the final impact

·         The focus of the mind and power must be conscious

 

26. Use of the Bag

 

            The principle advantage derived from the use of the bag is that the student is free to bring into contact with his target his entire exerted strength, without the need to be wary of a human target.  Practicing with the bag therefore improves the skill of hand and foot movements and action and help to perfect these movements.  Above all, with intelligent use of the bag, overall power, balance, speed and accuracy could be attained and successfully developed in a relatively short period.

 

            During training, efficient jumps, kicks and strikes with the legs and feet will determine how well you can control with your target.  The front portion of the sole plays a major role in almost all movements, whether jumping or falling, blocking or striking.  Turning of the ball (front sole) of the foot not only adds stable balance for an attack and defense, but also for coordination of speed, power and timing.

 

The weight of the bag should also be cautiously taken into account prior to practicing.  For adult beginners, use of a bag of 40 pounds or less would be ideal, carefully calculating that the body will be able to withstand the new weight.

 

            A 50 pound bag is considered suitable for a person who weights 130 pounds or more and who has already worked up to a level to be sufficiently applied and developed with the use of the bag.

 

 

27. Competition Rules and Interpretation

 

Tae Kwon Do competitions conducted by two contestants, Chong (blue) and Hong (red).  Only punching and kicking techniques directed to the front of the body are allowed.  Kicks are allowed only when attacking the face.  Hitting below the lower abdomen is forbidden.  All vulnerable parts of body are covered with protectors such as headgear, the trunk protector, forearm and shin guards, the groin guard, and breast guard to prevent injuries during competition.

 

            See appendix

 

Things to be done in the future

 

  1. Free Sparring Strategies
  2. Breaking techniques
  3. Video Tapes for forms, self-defense, kicks, basic motions, combination kicks & hands, and etc.)
  4. Breathing

 



[1] Falling down, peeling off skins, can be kicked before execution of attack (making body sign for attack)